School-based vaccination programs can be a source of distress for many students due to the pain from the needle injection and related fears. We created a multifaceted Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to address vaccination and pain, fear, and fainting called The CARD™ System. The objectives were to document acceptability of key tools included in the multifaceted KT intervention and their effectiveness in improving knowledge and attitudes about vaccination pain and fear.
Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Students, school staff, public health nurses, and parents participated in separate focus groups whereby they independently completed a knowledge and attitudes survey and provided structured and qualitative feedback on key KT tools of the multifaceted KT intervention. They then repeated the knowledge and attitudes survey.
Altogether, 22 students (grade 6 and 7), 16 school staff (principals, grade 7 and 8 teachers, resource teachers, secretaries), 10 nurses (injecting, charge, and school nurses), and 3 parents participated. Knowledge test scores increased post-KT tool review: 8.5 (2.1) versus 7.3 (1.9); P<0.001. Attitudes were more positive about the individual nature of pain and fear experience during vaccination. Student fear scores were lower post-tool review: 5.1 (2.9) versus 4.6 (3.0); P<0.001. The majority of the participants reported they understood all the information, the amount was just right and that the information was useful.
The KT tools were demonstrated to be acceptable and to improve knowledge. Future research is warranted to determine their impact on student experience during school vaccinations.
- Overview of a Knowledge Translation (KT) Project to improve the vaccination experience at school: The CARD™ System
- Involving stakeholders in informing the development of a Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to improve the vaccination experience at school
- Piloting The CARD™ System for education of students about vaccination: Does it improve the vaccination experience at school?
- The CARD™ System for improving the vaccination experience at school: Results of a small-scale implementation project on program delivery
- The CARD™ System for improving the vaccination experience at school: Results of a small-scale implementation project on student symptoms